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=Suggested Undergraduate Research Topics=
Links to many research areas in the department may be found
'''THIS PAGE HAS MOVED TO http://www.cs.princeton.edu/ugrad/independent-work/undergraduate-research-topics'''
[http://www.cs.princeton.edu/research/areas/ here] while links
to projects may be found
[http://www.cs.princeton.edu/research/projects/ here].
===Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~appel/ Andrew Appel], Room 306 - ''On Leave Spring 2016'' ===
* Research Areas: Formal methods, programming languages, compilers, computer security.
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Automated theorem proving (suggestion: take COS 441 first).
*# Trustworthiness of voting machines and/or internet voting.
*# Computer game-playing programs.
===Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~arora/ Sanjeev Arora], Room 307=== 
* Computational complexity; Probabilistically Checkable Proofs (PCPs); Efficient algorithms for finding approximate solutions to NP-hard problems (or proving that they don't exist); provable bounds for machine learning.
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Show that finding approximate solutions to NP-complete problems is also NP-complete (i.e., come up with NP-completeness reductions a la COS 487).
*# Experimental Algorithms: Implementing and Evaluating Algorithms using existing software packages.
*# Studying/designing provable algorithms for machine learning and implementions using packages like scipy and MATLAB.
*# Any topic in theoretical computer science.
===Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~august/ David August], Room 221===
* Research Areas: Computer Architecture and Compilers.
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Any interesting topic in computer architecture or compilers.
===Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~mbraverm/ Mark Braverman], Room 411===
* Research Areas: computational complexity, algorithms, applied probability, computability over the real numbers, game theory and mechanism design, information theory, applications of machine learning in healthcare and medicine.
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Topics in computational and communication complexity.
*# Applications of information theory in complexity theory.
*# Algorithms for problems under real-life assumptions.
*# Game theory, network effects, and mechanism design.
*# Computation involving dynamical systems, fractals, and cellular automata.
*# Game theory applied to problems in healthcare.
===Dr. Sandra Batista, 221 Nassau Street - Room 106 ===
*I am happy to supervise independent works in the following areas:
*# Networking projects if you have taken COS461 and want to work on a project on material covered when you took the course.
*# Literature survey paper in preparation for a project or thesis: I can help you with skills to do so and will be most helpful with surveys that overlap my research experience.
*# Computational Complexity specifically randomized classes and applying stochastic modeling
*# Computational Biology specifically Gene Expression Networks
*# Efficient statistical methods for large data sets such as FDR: this work can be algorithmic or writing efficient code to implement them.
*# In a former life, I studied game theory (Nash equilibrium) and Internet policy and can probably do a good job helping you with a project in these areas if you are interested in them.
*# Web Applications - I can help with system architecture, design documents to cover a set of specifications, and translating business requirements to uses cases and their implementations.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~chazelle/ Bernard Chazelle], Room 404 ===
*Research Areas: Natural Algorithms, Computational Geometry, Sublinear Algorithms.
*Independent Research Topics
*# Natural algorithms (flocking, swarming, social networks, etc).
*# Sublinear algorithms
*# Self-improving algorithms
*# Markov data structures
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~doug/ Douglas Clark], Room 309 ===
*Research Areas: Computer architecture and organization; architecturally-focused performance analysis.
*Independent Research Topics:
*#  Comparative survey of contemporary CPUs and GPUs
*#  Almost anything involving music and computers
*#  Other topics, depending on student interest
=== Prof. David Dobkin, Room 419===
*Research areas: mobile computing, mining of big data, information visualization
*#  Development of interesting mobile phone apps
*#  Exploring and visualizing public data sets
*#  Checking the accuracy of the web (e.g. how well do weather forecasts do)
*#  Baseball analytics
=== Dr. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~rdondero/ Robert Dondero], Room 206 ===
*Research Areas:  Software engineering; software engineering education.
*Independent Research Topics:
*#Develop or evaluate tools to facilitate student learning in undergraduate computer science courses at Princeton, and beyond.
*#In particular, can code critiquing tools help students learn about software quality?
=== Prof. Zeev Dvir, Room 405 ===
*Research Areas:  Research Areas: computational complexity, pseudo-randomness, coding theory and discrete mathematics.
*Independent Research: I have various research problems related to Pseudorandomness, Coding theory, Complexity and Discrete mathematics - all of which require strong mathematical background.
===Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~bee/ Barbara Engelhardt], COS 322 ===
*Research Areas: Machine Learning, Statistics, Statistical Genomics
*Independent Research Topics:
**Development of statistical and ML models for large scale data analysis
***fMRI data analysis
***genetic, epigenetic, and organismal data
***medical data: EMRs, time series, longitudinal studies
***Other: music, movie ratings, recipes, text
**Statistical models for specific questions:
***Causal inference and instrumental variable analysis
***Model checking with posterior predictive checks
***Inference of undirected network from observational and time-series data
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~feamster/ Nick Feamster], 310 Sherrerd Hall ===
* '''Research Areas:''' Networking, Security, Anti-Censorship
* I am generally interested in topics that improve the performance and accessibility of the Internet and its applications. My interests thus range from network management and and security (the things that make the network "work", including SDN) to Internet censorship and control to performance measurement (especially in far-flung regions of the world, such as developing regions). Below are some broad areas where I am currently working and have specific project ideas.  I generally find that undergraduate research works best if students select a problem from the topic list below; this allows me to devote more attention to your project, and also to couple you with other students who are working on related problems, thus allowing you to take advantage of a broader knowledge base than just me.
*'''Performance measurement of broadband and mobile access networks.''' As broadband Internet access becomes more pervasive, understanding the performance that end users receive---and how they use he available capacity---is more important than ever.  Towards this goal, I work on technologies to characterize and improve the performance of fixed and mobile broadband access networks.  My group develops software to perform these measurements, including [http://projectbismark.github.com/ BISmark] (for home routers, Raspberry Pis, etc.) and [https://github.com/andrewkim823/MySpeedTest/ My Speed Test] (for Android), and I am very interested in working with students who want to gain experience developing tools and systems for these environments or with analyzing data collected from these settings.  Below are some possible project ideas:
**''Pinpointing locations of congestion (e.g., Comcast/Netflix)''. Current events have highlighted the ongoing congestion episodes on the wide-area Internet, with consumers continually complaining of poor performance for various applications and Internet destinations. Yet, despite widespread attention in industry and popular media, we lack accurate methods for pinpointing congestion locations.  We could use distributed measurement frameworks such as BISmark, MySpeedTest, and others (e.g., RIPE Atlas) to try to get more accurate characterizations of the locations of Internet congestion.  See this (flawed) [http://www.measurementlab.net/static/observatory/M-Lab_Interconnection_Study_US.pdf report] for a starting point on a problem statement; we can probably do better.
**''Home network performance troubleshooting.'' We have developed initial algorithms to determine whether a performance bottleneck is caused by a user's home wireless network or by the portion of the path on the wide area Internet.  These algorithms can be deployed on the BISmark home router devices and placed in user homes to study the contribution of users' home wireless networks to various network and application problems.
**''Performance measurement and characterization of emerging technologies.'' I would like to use our existing measurement platforms (i.e., BISmark, MySpeedTest) to design measurement tools that characterize various ISPs' support for emerging technologies, such as DNSSEC and IPv6?
*'''Censorship measurement and circumvention.'''
** ''Analysis of censorship measurements.'' We have collected extensive measurements of Internet censorship and manipulation using a tool called [http://encore.noise.gatech.edu/ Encore]. It would be interesting to analyze the data on Web filtering that we have been gathering for more than a year, with the goal of identifying both broader patterns across different regions and countries and across time.
** ''Extensions to [https://github.com/NullHypothesis/exitmap ExitMap].'' ExitMap is a tool for characterizing properties of Tor exit relays across the Internet.  The tool was written by Philipp Winter, who is now a researcher at Princeton and is an active Tor developer.  Projects involving Exitmap will give you a chance to interact directly with a Tor developer!
*** Add new scanning modules.  For example, add a module that searches for arbitrary keywords, crawls the web, and compares Tor and not-Tor traffic. Or, add a module that looks for exit relays performing traffic monitoring.
***Add code that makes it possible that exitmap runs autonomously in the background and periodically fetches new server descriptor: <https://github.com/NullHypothesis/exitmap/issues/7>
*'''Software-defined networking (SDN).'''
** Wide-area denial of Service attack prevention with SDN
** Here are some other [https://github.com/sdn-ixp/sdx-pyretic/wiki/Project-Ideas project ideas].
*'''Internet of Things (IoT) security'''
**Anomaly detection
**Device fingerprinting
**Home network intrusion detection and firewalls
===Dr. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~fellbaum/ Christiane Fellbaum], Room 412 ===
* Research Areas: theoretical and computational linguistics, word sense disambiguation, lexical resource construction, English and multilingual WordNet(s), ontology
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Anything having to do with natural language--come and see me with/for ideas suitable to your background and interests. Some topics students have worked on in the past:
*# Developing parsers, part-of-speech taggers, morphological analyzers for underrepresented languages (you don't have to know the language to develop such tools!)
*# Quantitative approaches to theoretical linguistics questions
*# Extensions and interfaces for WordNet (English and WN in other languages),
*# Applications of WordNet(s), including:
*## Foreign language tutoring systems,
*## Spelling correction software,
*## Word-finding/suggestion software for ordinary users and people with memory problems,
*# Machine Translation
*# Sentiment and Opinion detection
*# Automatic reasoning and inferencing
*# Collaboration with professors in the social sciences and humanities ("Digital Humanities")
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~felten/ Edward Felten], 302 Sherrerd Hall -  ''On Leave during Fall 2015, Spring 2016 and Fall 2016''  ===
*Research Areas: Computer security and privacy; Internet software; technology law and policy.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Technology for open government.
*# Computer security and privacy.
*# Digital media distribution.
*# Copy protection and peer to peer technologies.
*# Electronic voting.
*# Technology, society and public policy.
*# Any other interesting or offbeat topic.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~af/ Adam Finkelstein], Room 424 ===
*Research Areas: computer graphics, animation.
*Ideas for independent Research Topics:
*# Computer-generated drawings from 3D models.
*# Tools for making visual art using computer graphics.
*# New methods for computer animation.
*# Techniques for medical visualization.
*# Experiments where the data is collected via the internet.
*# Any interesting project in computer graphics.
=== Dr. Robert S. Fish  -  '''''Independent Work Seminar Instructor''''' ===
* Research Interests - Networking and telecom; learning, perception, and intelligence, artificial and otherwise; human-computer interaction; as well as the general topic of R&D innovation methodologies.
*Fall 2015 Seminars:
*# '''[https://www.cs.princeton.edu/ugrad/independent-work/independent-work-seminar-offerings-fall-2015Invention and Innovation: Entrepreneurial Lessons for Computer Scientists]''',
*# '''Online learning and MOOCs''' <Link>
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~mfreed/ Michael Freedman], Room 308 -'' On Leave Fall 2015 and Spring 2016'' ===
*Research Areas: Distributed systems, security, networking
*Independent Research Topics:
Projects related to streaming data analysis, datacenter systems and networks, untrusted cloud storage
and applications. Please see my group website at http://sns.cs.princeton.edu/ for current research projects.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~funk/ Thomas Funkhouser], Room 422 - '''''Independent Work Seminar Instructor'''''  ===
* Research Areas: Computer Graphics, Computer Vision.
* Fall 2015 Seminar - '''Understanding the World with Sensors'''  <Link>
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Develop methods for 3D scanning of interior environments. 
*# Investigate methods for recognizing objects in 3D scans.
*# Develop components of a system to reconstruct 3D models of cities from scannned data.
*# Help build systems for creating new 3D models using a large repository of existing models.
*# Any other projects related to computer graphics or shape analysis.
=== Dr. Ananda Gunawardena ("Guna"), 221 Nassau Street - Room 103===
*Research Areas: Learning Sciences, Educational Technology, Pen-based computing
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Applications of Learning Sciences to Educational Technology platforms
*# Research and develop analytics and pedagogical models for classroom salon (http://classroomsalon.org), a social annotation platform used for collaborative learning. (reference: http://classroomsalon.com)
*# Research and develop usable and scalable pen/stylus based applications with particular emphasis on sketch recognition with domain specific information. (reference: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~ab/PenComputing/)
===Prof. Aarti Gupta, Room 220 ===
* Research Areas: Formal methods, program analysis, logic decision procedures
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Finding bugs in open source software using automatic verification tools
*# Software verification (program analysis, model checking, test generation)
*# Decision procedures for logical reasoning (SAT solvers, SMT solvers)
=== Dr. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~ak18 Alan Kaplan], 221 Nassau Street - Room 105 - '''''Independent Work Seminar Instructor''''' ===
* Research Areas: mobile apps/technology,  mobile app development, internet of things, multi-programming language interoperability
* Fall 2015 Seminar - ''' Apps for the Environment''' - IW Seminar, Fall 2015 (LINK)
* Independent Research Topics:
*# Civic Computing/Software for Social Good - These projects should have an impact - locally, nationally or even globally - by helping some community of interest. Projects may involve and/or extend existing (open source) platforms, or t can be entirely new ventures. Projects can involve mobile devices, web platforms, cloud-based backends, open APIs/data, hardware sensors, etc. But the end result should, quite simply, help people and communities in some way.
*# Automated Multi-Language Toolset - Design, develop and evaluate a toolset that helps automate the development of multi-language software (e.g., Android Java SDK and NDK).
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~bwk/ Brian Kernighan], Room 311--- '' '''On sabbatical during the 2015-2016 academic year.''''' === 
* Research Areas: application-specific languages, document preparation, user interfaces, software tools, programming methodology
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Application-oriented languages, scripting languages.
*# Tools; user interfaces; web services.
*# AMPL and optimization.
*# Joint work with other departments.
*# For a list of less than half-baked ideas [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~bwk/iw.ideas Look Here]
=== Asst. Prof. Kyle Jamieson, Room  ===
*Research areas: Wireless and mobile networking; indoor radar and indoor localization; Internet of Things
*Independent research topics (updated July '15):
*# Investigate the most efficient way to deliver packets to an array of low-cost Wi-Fi APs strung along the ceiling of a tunnel so that they may deliver those data to customers aboard a metro train speeding through the tunnel below.
*# Faster-than-Nyquist is a technique in the wireless physical layer that allows packets to be decoded when their transmissions are speeded up in a certain way.  Can you think of interesting ways of leveraging this at higher layers of the networking stack, for example the way it might interact with Wi-Fi’s link-layer frame aggregation functions?
*# Read papers from my lab and propose an interesting extension or a new “take" on the ideas we’ve explored.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~aslp/ Andrea LaPaugh], Room 304 - '''''Independent Work Seminar Instructor''''' ===
*Research Areas: Social network analysis; Search and retrieval of information; data mining, particularly clustering; combinatorial algorithms
*Fall 2015 Seminar - '''[https://www.cs.princeton.edu/ugrad/independent-work/independent-work-seminar-offerings-fall-2015 Analyzing relationship networks: social networks and beyond]'''
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Investigating new characterizations of the graph structure of the Web or other social networks.
*# Experimental evaluations of clustering algorithms, especially new algorithms.
*# Data mining a social network.
*# Other topics with an information discovery or management aspect, including novel applications using databases or information retrieval.
=== Dr. [http://www.danleyzberg.com Dan Leyzberg], Room 208 ===
*Research Areas: human-robot interaction, human-computer interaction, online tools for computer science education.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# How do people actually interact with technology? Investigate human-computer or human-robot interaction with experimental methodologies from the social sciences, including psychology and cognitive science. First step: identify the technology and usage/engagement metrics you might be interested in studying. You will write code that collects and analyzes this data.
*# Help me build tools for computer science education at Princeton and beyond. I taught high school computer science for many years and if you took any computer science at the high school level, you know that the tools available to teachers are relatively primitive. Princeton has a few internal tools developed for COS 126 that would be great to make available to high school students or to other colleges students such as the [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~cos126/java_visualize/ Java Visualizer] and [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~cos126/websheets/index.php?group=Distinct+Reverse+NOrdered+NSwap+Commonest#Reverse Websheets]. You are not limited to these existing tools; propose a tool that might be useful to students and we'll try to make it work!
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~li/ Kai Li], Room 321 ===
*Research Areas: Distributed systems; storage systems; content-based search and data analysis of large datasets.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Fast communication mechanisms for heterogeneous clusters.
*# Approximate nearest-neighbor search for high dimensional data.
*# Data analysis and prediction of in-patient medical data.
*#Optimized implementation of classification algorithms on manycore processors.
=== Dr. Xiaoyan Li, 221 Nassau Street - Room 104 ===
*Research areas: Information retrieval, novelty detection, question answering and text mining
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Explore new statistical retrieval models.
*# Passage retrieval models and relevance feedback models.
*# Evaluating existing document clustering techniques.
*# Explore fast and efficient document clustering approach.
*# Any interesting project related to information retrieval and text mining.
=== Prof. [http://www.princeton.edu/~mrm/ Margaret Martonosi], Room 410 -  '''''On sabbatical during the 2015-2016 academic year.''''' ===
*Research Areas: Computer architectures and the hardware/software interface, mobile networks, and technology for developing regions.
Possible research topics include:
* Green Data Centers
* Mobile Computing
* Cell phone applications and programming models
* Energy-efficient computer architecture
* Experiment with software development and research on the OpenXC platform (http://openxcplatform.com/). This platform provides an API to an automobile's data and can be used by Android apps to access vehicle data.  Emulators are available so you don't need Open XC hardware (or a car!) to get started, but some cool research and software seems possible through this.
Or email (mrm@princeton.edu) and pitch an idea roughly in this space!
===Dr. Paul Morarescu - '''''Independent Work Seminar Instructor'''''===
* Fall 2015 Fall Seminar - '''A Brave New Data World''' <link>
=== Dr. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~cmoretti/ Christopher Moretti], Room 208 ===
*Research areas: Distributed systems, high-throughput computing, computer science/engineering education
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Expansion, improvement, and evaluation of open-source distributed computing software.
*# Applications of distributed computing for "big science" (e.g. biometrics, data mining, bioinformatics)
*# Software and best practices for computer science education and study, especially Princeton's 126/217/226 sequence or MOOCs development
*# Sports analytics and/or crowd-sourced computing
=== Dr. [http://randomwalker.info/ Arvind Narayanan] 308 Sherrerd Hall ===
Research areas: broadly, privacy and security. Especially online tracking and Bitcoin.
Some topics and questions I'm interested in:
'''1. What can be inferred about people based on publicly available online data?'''
If someone ''really'' wanted to find out personal things about you online, how far could they get? Let's investigate this by writing a bot which, given an identity (say, an email address), collects and aggregates information from various sites about that person. Ideally, it should be able to automatically figure out which information is current and which is out of date, reconcile conflicts, make new inferences based on multiple pieces of data, and hook into the "deep web" — pages that are not directly visible on web searches.
'''2. Reverse engineering the Web to expose poor security and privacy'''
Web companies track us online and compile extensive databases of our personal information. The personal behavioral profiles created through tracking are used for targeted advertising, price discrimination, targeted political emails, and various other practices that make people uncomfortable. I have an ongoing long-term project to automatically reverse engineer web trackers to determine what information companies have collected about you and what they are using it for. There are many interesting sub-projects to work on.
'''3. Various Bitcoin-related projects'''
Can we make a more secure Bitcoin wallet? Just how anonymous are Bitcoin users? Can we create an "early-warning system" that connects to a large number of P2P Bitcoin nodes and looks for signs of possible attacks on the security or stability of the system? What applications can we build on top of block chain technology?
=== '''Dr. Iasonas Petras, Room 209''' ===
*Research Areas: Information Based Complexity, Numerical Analysis, Quantum Computation.
*Prerequisites: Reasonable mathematical maturity. In case of a project related to Quantum Computation a certain familiarity with quantum mechanics is required (related courses: ELE 396/PHY 208).
*Possible research topics include:
'''1.  Quantum algorithms and circuits:'''
*  i. Design or simulation quantum circuits implementing quantum algorithms.
*  ii. Design of quantum algorithms solving continuous problems (such as Eigenvalue problems for Partial Differential Equations).
'''2.  Information Based Complexity:'''
*  i. Necessary and sufficient conditions for tractability of Linear and Linear Tensor Product Problems in various settings (for example worst case or average case).
*  ii. Necessary and sufficient conditions for tractability of Linear and Linear Tensor Product Problems under new tractability and error criteria.
'''3. Topics in Scientific Computation
*  i. Randomness, Pseudorandomness, MC and QMC methods and their applications (Finance, etc)
=== '''Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~jrex/ Jennifer Rexford],''' Room 222 === 
*Research areas: networking, software-defined networks, network management
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Enterprise and data-center networking solutions built on Software Defined Networking (SDN).  For example, middleboxes like firewalls, NATs, intrusion detection systems, and load balancers, routing techniques that equalize latency between gaming or financial-services clients, adaptive measurement of network traffic, networking in challenged environments (e.g., developing regions, emergency situations, etc.).
*# Research on better programming abstractions for SDN, including using or improving our Python-based Pyretic (http://www.frenetic-lang.org/pyretic/) platform.  Projects could combine computer networking with other areas like programming languages, network optimization, algorithms, and distributed systems.
*# Any interesting project in computer networking.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~smr/ Szymon Rusinkiewicz], Room 406 ===
*Research Areas: computer graphics; acquisition of 3D shape, reflectance, and appearance of real-world objects; novel methods for physical fabrication of objects with particular shape/appearance.
*Independent Research Topics (updated fall, 2011):
*# Construct an efficient and easy-to-use 3-D scanning system for large collections of fragments of archaeological artifacts.
*# Investigate algorithms for computing and visualizing differences between ancient coins struck from similar, but slightly different, dies.
*# Develop a system combining body-mounted cameras and/or Kinect with tactile or auditory feedback to help blind people avoid obstacles.
*# Use computer-controlled milling machines to fabricate bas-reliefs, using substrates of heterogeneous materials.
*# Adapt a MakerBot or other hobbyist-grade manufacturing device to use multiple materials.
*# Implement (and perform the appropriate theoretical sampling/aliasing analysis for) a rendering system that explicitly accounts for the red/green/blue sub-pixels of LCD displays.
*# Other projects in computer graphics and vision, or technologies for documenting and studying cultural heritage objects.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~rs/ Robert Sedgewick], Room 319 - ===
* Research Areas: Scientific analysis of algorithms, Analytic combinatorics
* Independent Research Topics:
Professor Sedgewick is willing to advise any student who comes up with an idea for independent work from his books, papers, courses, or in his current areas of active research.  Send mail or stop by to discuss possible topics if you are interested.
===Prof. Sebastian Seung, Room 408 and PNI 153 ===
*Research Areas: computational neuroscience, connectomics, "deep learning" neural networks, social computing, crowdsourcing, citizen science
*Independent Research Topics:
#Gamification of neuroscience, e.g. EyeWire
#Hierarchical segmentation and object detection in biological images
#Crowdsourcing of computer science problems
#Neural network theories of visual computation in the retina
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~jps/ Jaswinder Pal Singh], Room 423 ===
*Research Areas: Boundary of technology and business/applications; building and scaling technology companies with special focus at that boundary; parallel computing systems and applications: parallel and distributed applications and their implications for software and architectural design; system software and programming environments for multiprocessors.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Develop a startup company idea, and build a plan/prototype for it.
*# Explore tradeoffs at the boundary of technology/product and business/applications in a chosen area.
*# Study and develop methods to infer insights from data in different application areas, from science to search to finance to others.
*#  Design and implement a parallel application. Possible areas include graphics, compression, biology, among many others. Analyze performance bottlenecks using existing tools, and compare programming models/languages.
*#Design and implement a scalable distributed algorithm.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~mona/ Mona Singh], Room 420 - ===
*Research Areas: computational molecular biology, as well as its interface with machine learning and algorithms.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Whole and cross-genome methods for predicting protein function and protein-protein interactions.
*# Analysis and prediction of biological networks.
*# Computational methods for inferring specific aspects of protein structure from protein sequence data.
*# Any other interesting project in computational molecular biology.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~ret/ Robert Tarjan], Room 324 ===
*Research Areas: Data structures; graph algorithms; combinatorial optimization; computational complexity; computational geometry; parallel algorithms.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Implement one or more data structures or combinatorial algorithms to provide insight into their empirical behavior.
*# Design and/or analyze various data structures and combinatorial algorithms.
=== Prof. [http://function.princeton.edu/ogt.html/ Olga Troyanskaya], Room 320 ===
*Research Areas: Bioinformatics; analysis of large-scale biological data sets (genomics, gene expression, proteomics, biological networks); algorithms for integration of data from multiple data sources; visualization of biological data; machine learning methods in bioinformatics.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Implement and evaluate one or more gene expression analysis algorithm.
*# Develop algorithms for assessment of performance of genomic analysis methods.
*# Develop, implement, and evaluate visualization tools for heterogeneous biological data.
=== Prof. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~dpw/ David Walker], Room 211 -- '' On sabbatical during the 2015-2016 academic year.''===
*Research Areas: Programming languages, type systems, compilers, domain-specific languages, software-defined networking and security.
Independent Research Topics:  Any other interesting project that involves humanitarian hacking, functional programming, domain-specific programming languages, type systems, compilers, software-defined networking, fault tolerance, language-based security, theorem proving, logic or logical frameworks.
=== Dr. [http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~wayne/contact/ Kevin Wayne], Room 207 ===
*Research Areas: design, analysis, and implementation of algorithms; data structures; combinatorial optimization; graphs and networks.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Design and implement computer visualizations of algorithms or data structures.
*# Develop pedagogical tools or programming assignments for the computer science curriculum at Princeton and beyond.
*# Develop assessment infrastructure and assessments for MOOCs.
= ''Opportunities outside the department'' =
We encourage students to look in to doing interdisciplinary computer science research and to work with professors in departments other than computer science.  However, every CS independent work project must have a strong computer science element (even if it has other scientific or artistic elements as well.)  To do a project with an advisor outside of computer science you must have permission of the department.  This can be accomplished by having a second co-advisor within the computer science department or by contacting the independent work supervisor about the project and having he or she sign the independent work proposal form.
Here is a list of professors outside the computer science department who are eager to work with computer science undergraduates.
===Prof. Mung Chiang, B238,  E Quad. chiangm@princeton.edu===
*Professor of Electrical Engineering, Associate Faculty of Computer Science
Director of the EDGE Lab
*Research Interests:
*#  Medical Scheduling Optimizer: Continuation of a Class of 2015 COS student’s IW to turn an optimizer software to adoption in hospitals in NJ
*#  Fog Networking: The cloud descending to be among the phones, watches, and set-top boxes. What is an architecture for the Internet of Things?
*#  Smart Data Pricing: Shared mobile data plan, sponsored content, application-based pricing: How does economics and networking work together for consumers, operators, and content providers?
*#  Social Learning Networks: MOOC and flipped classroom: how can we use big data and social networks to enhance learning efficacy?
=== Prof. [http://www.princeton.edu/~sharad/ Sharad Malik], Engineering Quad, Room B224 ===
*Research Areas:
*#Design of reliable hardware systems
*#Verifying complex software and hardware systems
=== Prof. Prateek Mittal, Engineering Quadrangle, pmittal@princeton.edu ===
*Research Areas:
*# Internet security and privacy
*# Social Networks
*# Privacy technologies, anonymous communication
*# Network Science
*Ideas for Independent Research Topics:
*#Internet security and privacy: The insecurity of Internet protocols and services threatens the safety of our critical network infrastructure and billions of end users. How can we defend end users as well as our critical network infrastructure from attacks?
*#Trustworthy social systems: Online social networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, Google+, and Twitter have revolutionized the way our society communicates. How can we leverage social connections between users to design the next generation of communication systems?
*#Privacy Technologies: Privacy on the Internet is eroding rapidly, with businesses and governments mining sensitive user information. How can we protect the privacy of our online communications? The Tor project (https://www.torproject.org/) is a potential application of interest.
=== Prof. [http://weblamp.princeton.edu/~psych/psychology/research/norman/index.php Ken Norman], Room 3-N-18 Green Hall===
* Research Areas: Memory, the brain and computation
* Lab: [http://compmem.princeton.edu/ Princeton Computational Memory Lab]
Potential research topics
* Methods for decoding cognitive state information from neuroimaging data (fMRI and EEG)
* Neural network simulations of learning and memory
=== [http://www.janet.vertesi.com/~jv/ Janet Vertesi], Sociology Dept, Wallace Hall 122===
*Research areas: Sociology of Technology; Human-Computer Interaction (qualitative); Informatics and Information Science; Computer-Supported Cooperative Work; Ubiquitous and Urban Computing.
*About this research: Human-Computer Interaction is an exciting and expanding community of computer scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and critical theorists who examine computing "in the wild" and are dramatically changing our sense of the possibilities of human technological experience. My research takes place at the intersection of sociology and computer science, and uses qualitative methods to build new software and hardware tools supporting a wider range of technological experiences. To learn more, visit my website: http://janet.vertesi.com
*Independent Research topics:
*1. Seeking a student to help build an Evernote plug-in to support group qualitative research. Must be ready to engage with not only technical specifications but also to think about critical theory, feminist theory, and ethnographic sensibilities.
*2. Got an idea for a project on computing in the developing world? or urban infrastructures? Or mixed-reality gaming? Let me know. I'm always looking out for interesting way to use qualitative research methods to better understand how users "in the wild" appropriate technologies into their daily lives, and using those insights to inform the design of new technological systems and possibilities.
===Prof. David Wentzlaff, Engineering Quadrangle, Room 228===
*Research Areas: Computer Architecture, Parallel Computing, Cloud
Computing, Operating Systems, Sustainable Computing.
*Independent Research Topics:
*# Instrument Princeton's Green (HPCRC) data center
*# Investigate power utilization on an processor core implemented in an FPGA
*# Dismantle and document all of the components in modern electronics. Invent new ways to build computers that can be recycled easier.
*#  Other topics in parallel computer architecture or operating systems

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